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# Let us revise

• Time is a period which is measured in minutes, days, years, etc.
60 seconds= 1 minute
60 minutes= 1 hour
24 hours= 1 day
365 days= 1 year
• Time can also be defined as a function that takes in three numbers, a day (1 to 31), a month (1 to 12), and a year (say 2004) and gives back an integer.
For example,
Consider 23/01/2018, this function has 3 numbers, a day (23), a month (01), and a year (2018). When time is defined in this way, it is also called a date.
• When we convert higher units of time to its lower units, we multiply. When we convert lower units of time to higher units, we divide.

EXAMPLE 1: Write 4 hours 5 minutes 60 seconds in terms of seconds.

SOLUTION:

Converting hours & minutes into seconds we get:

4 hours= 4X60 minutes= 4X60X60 seconds= 14400 seconds

5 minutes= 5X60 seconds= 300 seconds

Adding all the units in seconds term we get:
= (14400+300+60) seconds
=14760 seconds

Hence, 4 hours 5minutes 60 seconds in terms of second is 14760 seconds.

EXAMPLE 2: Neha’s date of birth is the thirtieth day of the eighth month of the year nineteen ninety-six. Write it in date format.

SOLUTION:

The day is 30th day

Month= 8th

Year= 1996

Therefore, Date of Birth= 30/8/1996 [Ans]

# Finding number of days

• We know that a year has 365 days. But, some years have 366 days. Those years are called leap years. The extra day occurs in the month of February. Leap years occur at an interval of 4 years.
How do you know if a year is leap year? If a particular year can be divided by 4 leaving zero remainder, then the year is a leap year. For example, 1996÷4=499
with remainder 0. Hence, 1996 is a leap year.
• There are total 12 months. They are, January(1), February(2), March(3), April(4), May(5), June(6), July(7), August(8), September(9), October(10), November(11), December(12).
• January, March, May, July, August, October, and December have 31 days. April, June, September, and November have 30 days. February has 28 days but during a leap year it has 29 days.
For example,
In the year 1996,
February has 29 days
because 1996 is a leap year.

Trivia: Easy way to remember which months have 31 days & which have 30 days
Consider the knuckles of your hand

EXAMPLE 1: How many days are there from September 23 to October 10.

SOLUTION: 1 23 30days

September has 30 days.
Number of days left to complete September= (30-23) days= 7 days
We are considering the first 10 days of October.
Hence, total number of days between September 23 and October 10= (7+10) days
= 17 days [ANS]

Subtract 4 years 5 months from 7 years 2 months

• Add the digits in the months position.
• Here, 8+5= 13 months.
• But, there are 12 months in total.
• So, we will consider 13months= (12 months + 1 months) = ( 1 year + 1 month)
• Write 1 month in months position and add the remaining 1 year to the (7+4) years in the years position.

 4 years 5 months 7 years 8 months + =11 years 13 months(invalid) +1 year( extra 12 months from months position) -12 months(carried to years position) 12 years 1 month

Subtraction:

• Subtract the digit in the months position
• Here, 2-5=-3. But, -3 months makes no sense
• So, we will take 12 months (1 year) borrow from years position.
• Now, -3+12(borrowed months) = 9 months.
• In the years position, 7-4=3 years. But we took 1 year (12 months) borrow from years position. So, we have to subtract 1 year from years position. Thus, 3-1= 2 years
 7 years 2 months 4 years 5 months - =3 years -3 months (invalid) -1 year(compensation for the borrowed 12 months) +12 months(borrowed) 2 years 9 months

Note: In addition of dates, 12months generates a carry of 1 year which is added in
years position. In subtraction, 1 year borrow from years position is added as 12 months in months position

# Time Intervals

• Time can be represented in two formats: 24-hour format and 12-hour format.
24-hour format: 00 hour, 01 hour, 02 hour, 03 hour, 04 hour, 05 hour, 06 hour, 07 hour, 08 hour, 09 hour, 10 hour, 11 hour…………….,22 hour, 23 hour
12-hour format: 12 am, 1 am, 2 am, 3 am, 4 am, 5 am, 6 am, 7 am, 8 am, 9 am, 10am, 11 am, 12 pm, 1 pm, 2 pm………….9 pm, 10pm, 11pm.
• In 12-hour format, am stands for ‘anti meridiem’, which is Latin for ‘before midday’.
pm stands for ‘post meridiem’, which is Latin for ‘after midday’.
• Comparison of 12-hour and 24-hour conventions of time.

• EXAMPLE 2: Write 1:23 pm in 24-hour format. Write 4:56 hours in 12-hour format.

SOLUTION:

If we add 12hours i.e. 12:00 to a 12-hour format time (only pm. am will be same), then the result is in 24- hour format. Therefore, 1:23+12= 13:23 in 24-hour format.

4:56 hours in 12-hour format = 4:56 am

Note:

• The times in am in 12-hour format will be equal to 24-hour format.
• To convert pm into 24-hour format, add 12:00 to the time given in pm.
• To convert a time greater than 12 in 24-hour format, subtract 12 from it to obtain the same time in 12-hour format

# Practice these questions

Q1) Aryan started his homework at 1:23 pm. He finished at 2:34 pm. How long did he take to do his homework?

Q2) It takes 3 hours 45 minutes for Bani to reach the airport from her house. If she wants reach the airport by 10:00 am, what time should she leave her house?

Q3) A train travels from city A to city B. The train leaves at 05:06 pm. It takes 78 hours 19 minutes for the train to reach city B. When would the train arrive in city B?

Q4) It takes 2 hours 30 minutes for Chinmay to reach town B from town A. Today, he reached town B 45minutes later. How long did he take today to reach town B?

Q5) Write the elapsed time for the following start and end time.

Q6) Write down 6 hours 7 minutes 8 seconds in terms of minutes and seconds.

Q7) Write down the date of the next leap day in dd/mm/yyyy format.

Q8) How many days are there in between 9th February, 2016 and 10th March, 2016.

Q9) Add/Subtract 2 years 3 months and/from 4 years 10 months.

Q10) Write 5:01 pm and 6:07 am in 24-hour format. Write 13:08 hours and 8 hours 9 minutes in 12-hour format.

# Recap

• When we convert higher units of time to its lower units, we multiply.
• When we convert lower units of time to its higher units, we divide.
• A leap year is a year which can be divided by 4.
• A leap year has 366 days instead of 365 days.
• In leap year, the extra day is added to the month of February. It has 29 days instead of 28 days.
• In AB:CD hours, AB is in the hours place and CD is in the minutes place.
• In 24-hour format, the range is from 00 hours to 23 hours
• In 12-hour format, there are two periods of 12 hours, each ranging from 1 am/pm to 12 am/pm
• Carry of 60 minutes in min position= Added as 1 hour in hours position
Borrow of 60 minutes is subtracted as 1 hour from hours position.

## Quiz for Time

 Q.1 Read the time on the clock. a) 12:35 b) 1:35 c) 4:35 d) 2:35
 Q.2 What will be the time after 2 hours 25 minutes? a) 6:00 b) 7:00 c) 5:00 d) 8:00
 Q.3 How much time has elapsed in following cases- 9 A.M. to 11:25 A.M. a) 135 minutes b) 155 minutes c) 145 minutes d) 165 minutes
 Q.4 Mohan went to the mall at 7:00 PM and came back at 9:30 PM. How much time did he spend in the mall? a) 150 minutes b) 140 minutes c) 130 minutes d) 160 minutes
 Q.5 A train left New Delhi station at 7:30 AM and reached Meerut at 9:45 AM. How much time did it take to reach Meerut? a) 1 hour 15 minutes b) 3 hours 15 minutes c) 3 hours 45 minutes d) 2 hours 15 minutes
 Q.6 What will be the time after 7 hours? a) 12:50 b) 1:50 c) 2:50 d) 11:50
 Q.7 How many hours are there in the month of July? a) 754 b) 734 c) 744 d) 764
 Q.8 Convert the following into minutes: 2 days 9 hours a) 3420 minutes b) 3120 minutes c) 3720 minutes d) 3220 minutes
 Q.9 Convert the following into minutes: 3 days 5 hours a) 4520 minutes b) 4720 minutes c) 4820 minutes d) 4620 minutes
 Q.10 Convert the following into minutes: 11 hours 55 minutes a) 725 minutes b) 735 minutes c) 705 minutes d) 715 minutes